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(archangelica Officinalis Hoffm)
And There Is Pansies That's For Thoughts
Bluebell (wild Hyacinth)
Anemone (wood)
House Leek (crassulaceoe)

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(archangelica Officinalis Hoffm)
And There Is Pansies That's For Thoughts
Bluebell (wild Hyacinth)
Anemone (wood)
House Leek (crassulaceoe)


The Lemon (Citrus Limonum) is so common of use in admixing
refreshing drinks, and for its fragrancy of peel, whether for culinary
flavour, or as a delightful perfume, that it may well find a place
among the Simples of a sagacious housewife. Moreover, the
imported fruit, which abounds in our markets, as if to the manner
born, is endowed with valuable medicinal properties which
additionally qualify it for the domestic Herbarium. The Lemons
brought to England come chiefly from Sicily, [301] through
Messina and Palermo. Flowers may be found on the lemon tree all
the year round.

In making lemonade it is a mistake to pour boiling water upon
sliced Lemons, because thus brewing an infusion of the peel, which
is medicinal. The juice should be squeezed into cold water
(previously boiled), adding to a quart of the same the juice of three
lemons, a few crushed strawberries, and the cut up rind of one

This fruit grows specially at Mentone, in the south of France; and a
legend runs that Eve carried two or three Lemons with her away
from Paradise, wandering about until she came to Mentone, which
she found to be so like the Garden of Eden that she settled there, and
planted her fruit.

The special dietetic value of Lemons consists in their potash
salts, the citrate, malate, and tartrate, which are respectively
antiscorbutic, and of assistance in promoting biliary digestion.
Each fluid ounce of the fresh juice contains about forty-four
grains of citric acid, with gum, sugar, and a residuum, which yields,
when incinerated, potash, lime, and phosphoric acid. But the
citric acid of the shops is not nearly so preventive or curative
of scurvy as the juice itself.

The exterior rind furnishes a grateful aromatic bitter; and our word
zest signifies really a chip of lemon peel or orange peel used for
giving flavour to liquor. It comes from the Greek verb, skizein,
to divide, or cut up.

The juice has certain sedative properties whereby it allays hysterical
palpitation of the heart, and alleviates pain caused by cancerous
ulceration of the tongue. Dr. Brandini, of Florence, discovered this
latter property of fresh Lemon juice, through a patient who, when
suffering [302] grievously from that dire disease, found marvellous
relief to the part by casually sucking a lemon to slake his feverish
thirst. But it is a remarkable fact that the acid of Lemons is harmful
and obnoxious to cats, rabbits, and other small animals, because it
lowers the heart's action in these creatures, and liquifies the blood;
whereas, in man it does not diminish the coagulability of the blood,
but proves more useful than any other agent in correcting that thin
impoverished liquidity thereof which constitutes scurvy. Rapin
extols lemons, or citrons, for discomfort of the heart:--

Into an oval form the citrons rolled
Beneath thick coats their juicy pulp unfold:
From some the palate feels a poignant smart,
Which, though they wound the tongue, yet heal the heart.

Throughout Italy, and at Rome, a decoction of fresh Lemons is
extolled as a specific against intermittent fever; for which purpose a
fresh unpeeled Lemon is cut into thin slices, and put into an
earthenware jar with three breakfastcupfuls of cold water, and
boiled down to one cupful, which is strained, the lemon being
squeezed, and the decoction being given shortly before the access of
fever is expected.

For a restless person of ardent temperament and active plethoric
circulation, a Lemon squash (unsweetened) of not more than half a
tumblerful is a capital sedative; or, a whole lemon may be made hot
on the oven top, being turned from time to time, and being put
presently when soft and moist into a teacup, then by stabbing it
about the juice will be made to escape, and should be drunk hot. If
bruised together with a sufficient quantity of sugar the pips of a
fresh Lemon or Orange will serve admirably against worms in [303]
children. Cut in slices and put into the morning bath, a Lemon
makes it fragrant and doubly refreshing.

Professor Wilhelm Schmole, a German doctor, has published a work
of some note, in which he advances the theory that fresh Lemon
juice is a kind of elixir vitae; and that if a sufficient number of
Lemons be taken daily, life may be indefinitely prolonged. Lemon
juice is decidedly beneficial against jaundice from passive
sluggishness of the biliary functions; it will often serve to stay
bleedings, when ice and astringent styptics have failed; it will prove
useful when swallowed freely against immoderately active monthly
fluxes in women; and when applied externally it signally relieves
cutaneous itching, especially of the genitals.

Prize-fighters refresh themselves with a fresh cut Lemon between
the rounds when competing in the Ring. Hence has arisen the
common saying, Take a suck of the Lemon, and at him again.

For a relaxed sore throat, Lemon juice will help to make a
serviceable gargle. By the heat of the sun it may be reduced to a
solid state. For a cold in the head, if the juice of a ripe Lemon be
squeezed into the palm of the hand, and strongly sniffed into the
nostrils at two or three separate times, a cure will be promoted.
Roast fillet of veal, with stuffing and lemon juice, was beloved by
Oliver Cromwell.

For heartburn which comes on without having eaten sweet things, it
is helpful to suck a thin slice of fresh Lemon dipped in salt just
after each meal.

The Chinese practice of rubbing parts severely neuralgic with the
wet surface of a cut Lemon is highly useful. This fruit has been sold
within present recollection at half-a-crown each, and during the
American war at five shillings.

[304] The hands may be made white, soft, and supple by daily
sponging them with fresh Lemon juice, which further keeps the
nails in good order; and the same may be usefully applied to the
roots of the hair for removing dandriff from the scalp.

The Candied Peel which we employ as a confection is got from one of
the citrons (a variety of the lemon); whilst another of this tribe is
esteemed for religious purposes in Jewish synagogues. These citrons
are imported into England from the East; and for unblemished
specimens of the latter which reach London, high prices are paid.
One pound sterling is a common sum, and not infrequently as much
as seventy shillings are given for a single Citron of Law. The fruit
is used at the Feast of Tabernacles according to a command given in
the Book of the Law; it is not of an edible nature, but is handed
round and smelt by the worshippers as they go out, when they
thank God for all good things, and for the sweet odours He has
given to men. This citron is considered to be almost miraculously
restorative, especially by those who regard it as the tappnach,
intended in the text, Comfort me with apples. Ladies of the Orient,
even now, carry a piece of its rind about them in a vinaigrette.

The citron which furnishes Candied Peel resembles a large juicy
lemon, but without a nipple.

Virgil said of the fruit generally:--

Media fert tristes succos, tardumque saporem
Felicis mali.

Fresh Lemon juice will not keep because of its mucilage, which
soon ferments.

Sidney Smith, in writing about Foston, his remote Country Cure in
Yorkshire, said it is twelve miles from a Lemon.

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