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Finocchio
Southernwood
(archangelica Officinalis Hoffm)
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Anemone (wood)



Marigold








In the Grete Herball this plant was called Mary Gowles. Three
varieties of the Marigold exercise medicinal virtues which constitute
them Herbal Simples of a useful nature--the Corn Marigold
(Chrysanthemum segetum), found in our cornfields; the cultivated
garden Marigold (Calendula officinalis); and the Marsh
Marigold (Caltha palustris), growing in moist grass lands, and
popularly known as Mareblobs.

The Corn Marigold, a Composite flower, called also Bigold, and the
Yellow Oxeye, grows freely, though locally, in English cornfields,
its brilliant yellow flowers contrasting handsomely with adjacent
Scarlet-hued Poppies and Bluebottles (Centaurea cyanus). It is
also named Buddle or Boodle, from buidel, a purse, because it
bears gools or goldins, representing gold coins, in the form of
the flat, round, brightly yellow blossoms, which were formerly
known, too, as Ruddes (red flowers). The botanical title of the
species, Chrysanthemum segetum, signifies golden flower.

Hill named this Marigold, the husbandman's dyall. In common
with the larger Oxeye Daisy (Chrysanthemum leucanthemum) it
has proved of late very successful in checking the night sweats of
pulmonary consumption. A tincture and an infusion of the herb have
been made; from five to ten drops of the former being given for a
dose, and from two to three tablespoonfuls of the latter.

The garden Marigold, often called African Marigold, came
originally from Southern France, and has been cultivated in England
since 1570. It is a Composite plant, and bears the name Calendula
from the Latin calendoe, the first days of each month, because it
flowers all the year round. Whittier styles it the grateful and [327]
obsequious Marigold. The leaves are somewhat thick and sapid;
when chewed, they communicate straightway a viscid sweetness,
which is followed by a sharp, penetrating taste, very persistent in the
mouth, and not of the warm, aromatic kind, but of an acrid, saline
nature. This Marigold has always been grown, chiefly for its
flowers, which were esteemed of old as a cordial to cheer the spirits,
and when dried were put into broths as a condiment: Charles Lamb
(Elia) says, in his Essay on Christ's Hospital: In lieu of our
half-pickled Sundays, or quite fresh boiled beef on Tuesdays (strong as
caro equina), with detestable Marigolds floating in the pail to
poison the broth. The strap-like florets of the rays are the parts of
the flowers used for such a purpose. They should be gathered on a
fine day when the blossoms are fully expanded, which having been
divested of their outer green leaves, should be next spread on a cloth
in an airy room to become dry. After having been turned frequently
for a few days, they may be put by in paper bags or in drawers.

Gerard says: The yellow leaves of the flowers are dried and kept
throughout Dutch-land against winter, to put into broths and
physical potions, and for divers other purposes, in such quantity that
the stores of some grocers or spice-sellers contain barrels filled with
them, and to be retailed by the penny, more or less; insomuch, that
no broths are well made without dried Marigolds; and, The herb
drank after the coming forth from the bath of them that hath the
yellow jaundice doth in short time make them well coloured. (This
is probably conjectured on the doctrine of signatures.)

A decoction of the flowers is employed by country people as a
posset drink in measles and small-pox; and the expressed fresh juice
proves a useful remedy against [328] costiveness, as well as for
jaundice and suppression of the monthly flow--from one to two
tablespoonfuls being taken as a dose.

The plant has been considered also of service for scrofulous
children, when given to them as a salad. One of the flowers if
rubbed on any part recently stung by a bee or wasp, will quickly
relieve it.

Buttercups and Marigolds, when growing close to each other, are
called in Devonshire, publicans and sinners. The active, bitter
principle of the Marigold is callendulin, which is yellow and
tasteless, whilst swelling in water into a transparent jelly. Druggists
now make a medicinal tincture (H.) of the common Marigold, using
four ounces of the dried florets to a pint of proof spirit, the dose
being from half a teaspoonful to two teaspoonfuls in water, twice or
three times in the day. It is advised as a sudorific stimulant in low
fevers, and to relieve spasms. Also, the Marigold has been
employed both as a medicine and externally in treating cancer,
being thought to dispose cancerous sores to heal. A saturated
tincture of the flowers when mixed with water, promotes the cure of

contusions, wounds, and simple sores or ulcers; also the extract will
allay chronic vomiting, if given in doses of two grains, several times
a day. One drop of the tincture with two grains of powdered borax
when sprayed into the ear, is very useful if a discharge has become
established therefrom.

The plant, especially its flowers, was used on a large scale by the
American surgeons, to treat wounds and injuries sustained during
the last civil war; and obtained their warmest commendation. It
quite prevented all exhausting suppurative discharges and drainings.
Succus Calenduloe (the fresh juice) is the best form--say
American surgeons--in which the Calendula [329] is obtainable
for ready practice. Just sufficient alcohol should be added to the
juice as will prevent fermentation. For these purposes as a
vulnerary, the Calendula owes its introduction and first use
altogether to homoeopathic methods, as signally valuable for
healing wounds, ulcers, burns, and other breaches of the skin
surface. Dr. Hughes (Brighton) says: The Marigold is a precious
vulnerary. You will find it invaluable in surgical practice.

On exposure to the sun the yellow colour of the garden Marigold
becomes bleached. Some writers spell the name Marygold, as if it,
and its synonyms bore reference to the Virgin Mary; but this is a
mistake, though there is a fancied resemblance of the disc's florets
to rays of glory. It comes into blossom about March 25th (the
Annunciation of the Virgin Mary).

What flower is this which bears the Virgin's name,
And richest metal joined with the same?

In the chancel of Burynarbon Church, Devonshire, is an epitaph
containing a quaint allusion to this old idea respecting the
Marigold:--To the pretious memory of Mary, ye dear, and only
daughter of George Westwood. January 31st, 1648.

This Mary Gold, lo! here doth show
Mari's worth gold lies here below;
The Marigold in sunshine spread,
When cloudie closed doth bow the head.

Margaret of Orleans had for her device a Marigold turning towards
the sun, with the motto, je ne veux suivre que lui seul.

Dairy women used to churn the petals of the Marigold with their
cream for giving to their butter a yellow colour.

The Marsh Marigold (Caltha poetarum) or the Marsh [330]
Horsegowl of old writers, grows commonly in our wet meadows,
and resembles a gigantic buttercup, being of the same order of
plants (Ranunculaceoe). The term, Marsh Marigold, is a
pleonasm for Marigold, which means of itself the Marsh Gowl or
Marsh Golden Flower, being an abbreviation of the old Saxon
mear-gealla. So that the term Marsh has become prefixed
unnecessarily. Presently, the name Marigold, Marsh Gowl, was
passed on to the Calendula of the corn fields of Southern Europe,
and to the garden Marigold. Furthermore, the botanical title, Caltha,
of the Mare Blob, is got from calathus, a small round basket of
twigs or osiers made two thousand years and more ago, which the
concave golden bowl of the Marsh Marigold was thought to
resemble. Persephone was collecting wild flowers in a Calathus
when carried off by the admiring Pluto. The earliest use of the floral
name Caltha occurs in Virgil's second Pastoral, Mollia luteola
pingit vaccinia Caltha. The title Mare Blob comes from the
Anglo-Saxon, mere (a marsh), and bleb or blob (a
bladder). These flowers were the flaventia lumina Calthoe of
Columella, described by Shakespeare in the Winter's Tale. They
are also known as Bublicans, Meadowbrights, Crazies,
Christ's Eyes, Bull's Eyes, May Blobs, Drunkards, Water
Caltrops, and wild Batchelor's Buttons. A tincture is made (H.)
from the whole plant when in flower, and may be given with
success for that form of bloodlessness with great impairment of the
whole health, known as pernicious anaemia. In toxic quantities the
marsh Marigold has produced in its provers, a pallid, yellow,
swollen state of the face, constant headache and giddiness, a
thickly-coated tongue, diarrhoea, a small rapid pulse sometimes
intermittent, heaviness of the limbs, and an [331] unhealthy,
eruptive state of the skin; so that the tincture of the plant in small,
well-diluted doses will slowly overcome this totality of symptoms,
and serve to establish a sound state of restored health. Five drops of
the tincture diluted to the third strength should be given three times
a day with water. Dr. Withering tells that on a large quantity of the
flowers being put in the bed-room of a girl subject to fits, the
attacks ceased; and an infusion of the flowers has been since given
with success for similar fits.

The Marsh Marigold has been called Verrucaria, because
efficacious in curing warts; also Solsequia, or Solsequium; and
Sponsa Solis, since the flower opens at the rising, and shuts at the
setting of the sun.





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