Another important use of intelligence tests is in the study of the factors which influence mental development. It is desirable that we should be able to guard the child against influences which affect mental development unfavorably; but as l... Read more of Other Uses Of Intelligence Tests at Intelligence Test.caInformational Site Network Informational
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Finocchio
Southernwood
(archangelica Officinalis Hoffm)
And There Is Pansies That's For Thoughts
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Bluebell (wild Hyacinth)
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Least Viewed Herbs

Finocchio
Southernwood
(archangelica Officinalis Hoffm)
And There Is Pansies That's For Thoughts
Acorn
Poppy
Bluebell (wild Hyacinth)
Asparagus
Anemone (wood)
House Leek (crassulaceoe)



Sage








(Salvia officinalis, Linn.), a perennial member of the Labiatae,
found naturally on dry, calcareous hills in southern Europe, and
northern Africa. In ancient times, it was one of the most highly
esteemed of all plants because of its reputed health-insuring
properties. An old adage reads, "How can a man die in whose garden sage
is growing?" Its very names betoken the high regard in which it was
held; salvia is derived from salvus, to be safe, or salveo, to be in
good health or to heal; (hence also salvation!) and officinalis stamps
its authority or indicates its recognized official standing. The name
sage, meaning wisdom, appears to have had a different origin, but as the
plant was reputed to strengthen the memory, there seems to be ground for
believing that those who ate the plant would be wise.

Description.--The almost woody stems rise usually 15 to 18 inches
high, though in Holt's Mammoth double these sizes is not uncommon. The
leaves are oblong, pale green, finely toothed, lance-shaped, wrinkled
and rough. The usually bluish-lilac, sometimes pink or white flowers,
borne in the axils of the upper leaves in whorls of three or four, form
loose terminal spikes or clusters. Over 7,000 of the small globular,
almost black seeds, which retain their vitality about three years, are
required to weigh an ounce, and nearly 20 ounces to the quart.

Cultivation.--Sage does best upon mellow well-drained soil of
moderate fertility. For cultivation on a large scale the soil should be
plowed deeply and allowed to remain in the rough furrows during the
winter, to be broken up as much as possible by the frost. In the spring
it should be fined for the crop. Sage is easily propagated by division,
layers and cuttings, but these ways are practiced on an extensive scale
only with the Holt's Mammoth variety, which produces no seed. For other
varieties seed is most popular. This is sown in drills at the rate of
two seeds to the inch and covered about 1/4 inch deep. At this rate and
in rows 15 inches apart about 8 pounds of seed will be needed to the
acre.



Usually market gardeners prefer to grow sage as a second crop. They
therefore raise the plants in nursery beds. The seed is sown in very
early spring, not thicker than already mentioned, but in rows closer
together, 6 to 9 inches usually. From the start the seedlings are kept
clean cultivated and encouraged to grow stocky. By late May or early
June the first sowings of summer vegetables will have been marketed and
the ground ready for the sage. The ground is then put in good condition
and the sage seedlings transplanted 6 or 8 inches apart usually. Clean
cultivation is maintained until the sage has possession.

When the plants meet, usually during late August, the alternate ones are
cut, bunched and sold. At this time one plant should make a good bunch.
When the rows meet in mid-September, the alternate rows are marketed, a
plant then making about two bunches. By the middle of October the final
cutting may be started, when the remaining plants should be large enough
to make about three bunches each. This last cutting may continue well
into November without serious loss of lower leaves. If the plants are
not thinned, but are allowed to crowd, the lower leaves will turn yellow
and drop off, thus entailing loss.

For cultivation with hand-wheel hoes the plants in the rows should not
stand closer than 2 inches at first. As soon as they touch, each second
one should be removed and this process repeated till, when growing in a
commercial way, each alternate row has been removed. Finally, the plants
should be 12 to 15 inches apart. For cultivation by horse the rows will
need to be farther apart than already noted; 18 to 24 inches is the
usual range of distances. When grown on a large scale, sage usually
follows field-grown lettuce, early peas or early cabbage. If not cut too
closely or too late in the season sage plants stand a fair chance to
survive moderate winters. The specimens which succeed in doing so may be
divided and transplanted to new soil with little trouble. This is the
common practice in home gardens, and is usually more satisfactory than
growing a new lot of plants from seed each spring.

For drying or for decocting the leaves are cut when the flowers appear.
They are dried in the shade. If a second cutting is to be made, and if
it is desired that the plants shall live over winter, this second
cutting must not be made later than September in the North, because the
new stems will not have time to mature before frost, and the plants will
probably winterkill.

Sage seed is produced in open cups on slender branches, which grow well
above the leaves. It turns black when ripe. The stems which bear it
should be cut during a dry afternoon as soon as the seeds are ripe and
placed on sheets to cure; and several cuttings are necessary, because
the seed ripens unevenly. When any one lot of stems on a sheet is dry a
light flail or a rod will serve to beat the seed loose. Then small
sieves and a gentle breeze will separate the seed from the trash. After
screening the seed should be spread on a sheet in a warm, airy place for
a week or so to dry still more before being stored in cloth sacks. A
fair yield of leaves may be secured after seed has been gathered.



Uses.--Because of their highly aromatic odor sage leaves have long
been used for seasoning dressings, especially to disguise the too great
lusciousness of strong meats, such as pork, goose and duck. It is one of
the most important flavoring ingredients in certain kinds of sausage and
cheese. In France the whole herb is used to distill with water in order
to secure essential oil of sage, a greenish-yellow liquid employed in
perfumery. About 300 pounds of the stems and leaves yield one pound of
oil.





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