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Home - List of Herbs and Articles - Rock Garden

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(archangelica Officinalis Hoffm)
And There Is Pansies That's For Thoughts
Bluebell (wild Hyacinth)
House Leek (crassulaceoe)
Anemone (wood)

Least Viewed Herbs

(archangelica Officinalis Hoffm)
And There Is Pansies That's For Thoughts
Bluebell (wild Hyacinth)
House Leek (crassulaceoe)
Anemone (wood)

The Seeds Are Used In Cookery Confectionery And For Flavoring Liquors

Oil of fennel, a pale yellow liquid, with a sweetish aromatic odor and
flavor, is distilled with water. It is used in perfumery and for
scenting soaps. A pound of oil is the usual yield of 500 pounds of the

TTITLE Finocchio

or =Florence fennel= (F. dulce, D. C.), deserves special
mention here. It appears to be a native of Italy, a distinct dwarf
annual, very thick-set herb. The stem joints are so close together and
their bases so swelled as to suggest malformation. Even when full grown
and producing seed, the plant rarely exceeds 2 feet. The large, finely
cut, light green leaves are borne on very broad, pale green or almost
whitish stalks, which overlap at their bases, somewhat like celery, but
much more swelled at edible maturity, to form a sort of head or
irregular ball, the "apple," as it is called, sometimes as large as a
man's fist. The seeds are a peculiar oblong, much broader than long,
convex on one side and flat on the other, with five conspicuous ribs.

Cultivation is much the same as for common fennel, though owing to the
dwarf nature of the plant the rows and the plants may be closer
together. The seedlings should be 5 or 6 inches asunder. They are very
thirsty things and require water frequently. When the "apple" attains
the size of an egg, earth may be drawn up slightly to the base, which
may be about half covered; cutting may begin about 10 days later.
Florence fennel is generally boiled and served with either a butter or a
cream dressing. It suggests celery in flavor, but is sweeter and is even
more pleasingly fragrant. In Italy it is one of the commonest and most
popular of vegetables. In other European countries it is also well
known, but in America its cultivation is almost confined to Italian
gardens or to such as supply Italian demands in the large cities. In New
York it is commonly sold by greengrocers and pushcart men in the Italian

TTITLE Fennel Flower

(Nigella sativa, Linn.), an Asiatic annual, belonging to
the Ranunculaceae, grown to a limited extent in southern Europe, but
scarcely known in America. Among the Romans it was esteemed in cookery,
hence one of its common names, Roman coriander. The plant has a rather
stiff, erect, branching stem, bears deeply cut grayish-green leaves and
terminal grayish-blue flowers, which precede odd, toothed, seed vessels
filled with small, triangular, black, highly aromatic seeds. For garden
use the seed is sown in spring after the ground gets warm. The drills
may be 15 to 18 inches apart and the plants thinned to 10 or 12 inches
asunder. No special attention is necessary until midsummer, when the
seed ripens. These are easily threshed and cleaned. After drying they
should be stored in sacks in a cool, dry place. They are used just as
they are or like dill in cookery.

TTITLE Hoarhound

or =horehound= (Marrubium vulgare, Linn.), a perennial plant
of the natural order Labiatae, formerly widely esteemed in cookery and
medicine, but now almost out of use except for making candy which some
people still eat in the belief that it relieves tickling in the throat
due to coughing. In many parts of the world hoarhound has become
naturalized on dry, poor soils, and is even a troublesome weed in such
situations. Bees are very partial to hoarhound nectar, and make a
pleasing honey from the flowers where these are abundant. This honey has
been almost as popular as hoarhound candy, and formerly was obtainable
at druggists. Except in isolated sections, it has ceased to be sold in
the drug stores. The generic name Marrubium is derived from a Hebrew
word meaning bitter. The flavor is so strong and lasting that the modern
palate wonders how the ancient mouth could stand such a thing in

The numerous branching, erect stems and the almost square, toothed,
grayish-green leaves are covered with a down from which the common name
hoarhound is derived. The white flowers, borne in axillary clusters
forming whorls and spikes, are followed by small, brown, oblong seeds
pointed at one end. These may be sown up to the third year after
ripening with the expectation that they will grow. Spring is the usual
time for sowing. A dry, poor soil, preferably exposed to the south,
should be chosen. The plants may stand 12 to 15 inches apart. After once
becoming established no further attention need be given except to
prevent seed forming, thus giving the plant less chance to become a
nuisance. Often the clumps may be divided or layers or cuttings may be
used for propagation. No protection need be given, as the plants are

An old author gives the following recipe for hoarhound candy: To one
pint of a strong decoction of the leaves and stems or the roots add 8 or
10 pounds of sugar. Boil to candy height and pour into molds or small
paper cases previously well dusted with finely powdered lump sugar, or
pour on dusted marble slabs and cut in squares.


(Hyssopus officinalis, Linn.), a perennial evergreen undershrub
of the Labiatae, native of the Mediterranean region. Though well known in
ancient times, this plant is probably not the one known as hyssop in
Biblical writings. According to the Standard Dictionary the Biblical
"hyssop" is "an unidentified plant ... thought by some to have been a
species of marjoram (Origanum maru); by others, the caper-bush
(Capparis spinosa); and by the author of the 'History of Bible
Plants,' to have been the name of any common article in the form of a
brush or a broom." In ancient and medieval times hyssop was grown for
its fancied medicinal qualities, for ornament and for cookery. Except
for ornament, it is now very little cultivated. Occasionally it is found
growing wild in other than Mediterranean countries.

Description.--The smooth, simple stems, which grow about 2 feet tall,
bear lanceolate-linear, entire leaves and small clusters of usually
blue, though sometimes pink or white flowers, crowded in terminal
spikes. The small, brown, glistening three-angled seeds, which have a
little white hilum near their apices, retain their viability three
years. Leaves, stems and flowers possess a highly aromatic odor and a
hot, bitter flavor.

Cultivation.--Hyssop succeeds best in rather warm, limy soil. It may
be readily propagated by division, cuttings, and seed. In cold climates
the last way is the most common. Seed is sown in early spring, either in
a cold frame or in the open ground, and the seedlings transplanted in
early summer. Even where the plants survive the winters, it is advisable
to renew them every three or four years. When grown in too rich soil,
the growth will be very lush and will lack aroma. Plants should stand
not closer than 6 inches in the rows, which should be at least 18 inches
apart. They do best in partial shade.

Uses.--Hyssop has almost entirely disappeared from culinary practice
because it is too strong-flavored. Its tender leaves and shoots are,
however, occasionally added to salads, to supply a bitter taste. The
colorless oil distilled from the leaves has a peculiar odor and an
acrid, camphorescent taste. Upon contact with the air it turns yellow
and changes to a resin. From 400 to 500 pounds of the fresh plant yield
a pound of oil. The oil is used to some extent in the preparation of
toilet articles.

TTITLE Lavender

Next: (lavendula Vera D C; L Angustifolia Moench; L

Previous: Naples Consists Of The Stems Cut When The Plant Is About To Bloom

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