The Flowers Appear In 10 To 12 Weeks And The Seed Ripens Soon After





When it is desired to cure the leaves for winter use, the stems should

be cut just as the flowers begin to appear, and dried in the usual

manner. (See page 25.) If seed is wanted, they should be cut soon after

the flowers fall or even before all have fallen--when the scales around

the seeds begin to look as if drying. The cut stems must be dried on

sheets of very fine weave, to prevent loss of seed. When the leaves are

thoroughly dry they must be thrashed and rubbed before being placed in

sieves, first of coarse, and then of finer mesh.



Uses.--The leaves and the flower and tender stem tips of both species

have a pleasant odor, and are used for seasoning soups, stews, dressings

and sauces. They are specially favored in France and Italy, but are

popular also in England and America. In France marjoram is cultivated

commercially for its oil, a thin, light yellow or greenish liquid, with

the concentrated odor of marjoram and peppermint. It has a warm, and

slightly bitter taste. About 200 pounds of stems and leaves are needed

to get a pound of oil. Some distillation is done in England, where 70

pounds of the plant yield about one ounce of oil. This oil is used for

perfuming toilet articles, especially soap, but is perhaps less popular

than the essential oil of thyme.



TTITLE Mint



(Mentha viridis, Linn.)--Spearmint, a member of the Labiatae, is a

very hardy perennial, native to Mediterranean countries. Its generic

name is derived from the mythological origin ascribed to it. Poets

declared that Proserpine became jealous of Cocytus's daughter, Minthe,

whom she transformed into the plant. The specific name means green,

hence the common name, green mint, often applied to it. The old Jewish

law did not require that tithes of "mint, anise and cumin" should be

paid in to the treasury, but the Pharisees paid them while omitting the

weightier matters, justice, mercy, and faith (Matthew xxiii, 23). From

this and many other references in old writings it is evident that mint

has been highly esteemed for many centuries. In the seventeenth century

John Gerarde wrote concerning it that "the smelle rejoyceth the heart of

man." Indeed, it has been so universally esteemed that it is found wild

in nearly all countries to which civilization has extended. It has been

known as an escape from American gardens for about 200 years, and is

sometimes troublesome as a weed in moist soil.



Description.--From creeping rootstocks erect square stems rise to a

height of about 2 feet, and near their summits bear spreading branches

with very short-stemmed, acute-pointed, lance-shaped, wrinkled leaves

with toothed edges, and cylindrical spikes of small pink or lilac

flowers, followed by very few, roundish, minute, brown seeds.



Cultivation.--The plant may be easily propagated by means of cuttings,

offsets and division in spring. They may be expected to yield somewhat

of a crop the first season, but much more the second. In field culture

they will continue profitable for several years, provided that each

autumn the tops are cut off near the ground and a liberal dressing of

manure, compost or even rich soil is given. In ordinary garden practice

it is well also to observe this plan, but usually mint is there allowed

to shift for itself, along with the horseradish and the Jerusalem

artichoke when such plants are grown. So treated, it is likely to give

trouble, because, having utilized the food in one spot, its stems seek

to migrate to better quarters. Hence, if the idea is to neglect the

plants, a corner of the garden should be chosen where there is no danger

of their becoming a nuisance. It is best to avoid all such trouble by

renewing or changing the beds every 5 or 6 years.



Mint will grow anywhere but does best in a moist, rich loam and partial

shade. If in a sheltered spot, it will start earlier in the spring than

if exposed. Upon an extensive scale the drills should be 2 inches deep

and 12 to 15 inches apart. Bits of the rootstocks are dropped at

intervals of 6 to 12 inches in the rows and covered with a wheel hoe.

For a new plantation the rootstocks should be secured when the stems

have grown 2 or 3 inches tall.



For forcing, the clumps are lifted in solid masses, with the soil

attached, and placed in hotbeds or forcing house benches. Three or four

inches of moist soil is worked in among and over them and watered freely

as soon as growth starts. Cuttings may be made in two or three weeks.

Often mint is so grown in lettuce and violet houses both upon and under

the benches. During winter and spring there is enough of a demand for

the young tender stems and leaves to make the plants pay. It is said

that the returns from an ordinary 3 x 6-foot hotbed sash should be $10

to $15 for the winter. For drying, the stems should be cut on a dry day

when the plants are approaching full bloom and after the dew has

disappeared in the morning. They should be spread out very thinly in the

shade or in an airy shed. (See page 25.) If cut during damp weather,

there is danger of the leaves turning black.



Uses.--In both the green and the dried state mint is widely used in

Europe for flavoring soups, stews and sauces for meats of unpronounced

character. Among the Germans pulverized mint is commonly upon the table

in cruets for dusting upon gravies and soups, especially pea and bean

purees.



In England and America the most universal use of mint is for making mint

sauce, the sauce par excellence with roast spring lamb. Nothing can

be simpler than to mince the tender tops and leaves very, very finely,

add to vinegar and sweeten to taste. Many people fancy they don't like

roast lamb. The chances are that they have never eaten it with wellmade

mint sauce. In recent years mint jelly has been taking the place of the

sauce, and perhaps justly, because it can not only be kept indefinitely

without deterioration, but because it looks and is more tempting. It may

be made by steeping mint leaves in apple jelly or in one of the various

kinds of commercial gelatins so popular for making cold fruit puddings.

The jelly should be a delicate shade of green. Of course, before pouring

into the jelly glasses, the liquid is strained through a jelly bag to

remove all particles of mint. A handful of leaves should color and

flavor four to six glasses full.



TTITLE Parsley



(Carum Petroselinum, Linn.), a hardy biennial herb of the

natural order Umbelliferae, native to Mediterranean shores, and

cultivated for at least 2,000 years. The specific name is derived from

the habitat of the plant, which naturally grows among rocks, the Greek

word for which is petros. Many of the ancient writings contain

references to it, and some give directions for its cultivation. The

writings of the old herbalists of the 15th century show that in their

times it had already developed several well-defined forms and numerous

varieties, always a sure sign that a plant is popular. Throughout the

world today it is unquestionably the most widely grown of all garden

herbs, and has the largest number of varieties. In moist, moderately

cool climates, it may be found wild as a weed, but nowhere has it become

a pest.



"Ah! the green parsley, the thriving tufts of dill;





Southernwood (artemisia Abrotanum Linn) The Seeds Are Used In Cookery Confectionery And For Flavoring Liquors facebooktwittergoogle_plusredditpinterestlinkedinmail

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