Having thoroughly fined the surface of the garden by harrowing and

raking, the seeds may be sown or the plants transplanted as already

noted. From this time forward the surface must be kept loose and open by

surface cultivation every week or 10 days and after every shower that

forms a crust, until the plants cover the whole ground. This frequent

cultivation is not merely for the purpose of keeping the weeds in check;

it is a necessary operation to keep the immediate surface layer powdery,

in which condition it will act as a mulch to prevent the loss of water

from the lower soil layers. When kept in perfect condition by frequent

stirring the immediate surface should be powdery. Yes, powdery! Within

1 inch of the surface, however, the color will be darker from the

presence of moisture. When supplied with such conditions, failures must

be attributed to other causes than lack of water.