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(archangelica Officinalis Hoffm)
And There Is Pansies That's For Thoughts
Bluebell (wild Hyacinth)
Anemone (wood)
House Leek (crassulaceoe)

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(archangelica Officinalis Hoffm)
And There Is Pansies That's For Thoughts
Bluebell (wild Hyacinth)
Anemone (wood)
House Leek (crassulaceoe)

(archangelica Officinalis Hoffm)

a biennial or perennial herb of the natural order Umbelliferae, so called from its supposed
medicinal qualities. It is believed to be a native of Syria, from
whence it has spread to many cool European climates, especially Lapland
and the Alps, where it has become naturalized.

Description. Its roots are long, spindle-shaped, fleshy, and sometimes
weigh three pounds; its stems stout, herbaceous, fluted, often more than
4 feet tall, and hollow; its leaves long-stalked, frequently 3 feet in
length, reddish purple at the clasping bases, and composed, in the
larger ones, of numerous small leaflets, in three principal groups,
which are each subdivided into three lesser groups; its flowers
yellowish or greenish, small and numerous, in large roundish umbels; its
seeds pale yellow, membranous-edged, oblong flattened on one side,
convex on the other, which is marked with three conspicuous ribs.

Cultivation. Since the seeds lose their vitality rapidly, rarely being
viable after the first year, they should be sown as soon as ripe in late
summer or early autumn, or not later than the following spring after
having been kept during the winter in a cold storeroom. The soil should
be moderately rich, rather light, deep, well drained, but moist and well
supplied with humus. It should be deeply prepared and kept loose and
open as long as tools can be used among the plants, which may be left to
care for themselves as soon as they shade the ground well.

In the autumn, the seeds may be sown where the plants are to remain or
preferably in a nursery bed, which usually does not need protection
during the winter. In the spring a mild hotbed, a cold frame or a
nursery bed in the garden may be used, according to the earliness of
planting. Half an inch is deep enough to cover the seeds. The seedlings
should be transplanted when still small for their first summer's growth,
a space of about 18 inches being allowed between them. In the autumn
they should be removed to permanent quarters, the plants being set 3
feet apart.

If well grown, the leaves may be cut for use during the summer after
transplanting; the plants may not, however, produce seed until the
following season. Unless seed is desired, the tops should be cut and
destroyed at or before flowering time, because, if this be not done, the
garden is apt to become overrun with angelica seedlings. If the seeds
are wanted, they should be gathered and treated as indicated on page 28.
After producing seed, the plants frequently die; but by cutting down the
tops when the flower heads first appear, and thus preventing the
formation of seed, the plants may continue for several years longer.

Uses. The stems and leaf stalks, while still succulent, are eaten as a
salad or are roasted or boiled like potatoes. In Europe, they are
frequently employed as a garnish or as an adjunct to dishes of meat and
fish. They are also largely used for making candied angelica. (See
below.) Formerly the stems were blanched like celery and were very
popular as a vegetable; now they are little used in the United States.
The tender leaves are often boiled and eaten as a substitute for
spinach. Less in America than in Europe, the seeds, which, like other
parts of the plant, are aromatic and bitterish, are used for flavoring
various beverages, cakes, and candies, especially "comfits." Oil of
angelica is obtained from the seeds by distillation with steam or
boiling water, the vapor being condensed and the oil separated by
gravity. It is also obtained in smaller quantity from the roots, 200
pounds of which, it is said, yield only about one pound of the oil. Like
the seeds, the oil is used for flavoring.

Angelica candied. Green says: The fresh roots, the tender stems, the
leaf stalks and the midribs of the leaves make a pleasing aromatic
candy. When fresh gathered the plant is rather too bitter for use. This
flavor may be reduced by boiling. The parts should first be sliced
lengthwise, to remove the pith. The length of time will depend somewhat
upon the thickness of the pieces. A few minutes is usually sufficient.
After removal and draining the pieces are put in a syrup of granulated
sugar and boiled till full candy density is reached. The kettle is then
removed from the fire and the contents allowed to cool. When almost cold
the pieces are to be taken out and allowed to dry.


(Pimpinella Anisum, Linn.), an annual herb of the natural order
Umbelliferae. It is a native of southwestern Asia, northern Africa and
south-eastern Europe, whence it has been introduced by man throughout
the Mediterranean region, into Germany, and to some extent into other
temperate regions of both hemispheres, but seems not to be known
anywhere in the wild state or as an escape from gardens. To judge from
its mention in the Scriptures (Matthew xxiii, 23), it was highly
valued as a cultivated crop prior to our era, not only in Palestine,
but elsewhere in the East. Many Greek and Roman authors, especially
Dioscorides, Theophrastus, Pliny and Paladius, wrote more or less fully
of its cultivation and uses.

From their days to the present it seems to have enjoyed general
popularity. In the ninth century, Charlemagne commanded that it be grown
upon the imperial farms; in the thirteenth, Albertus Magnus speaks
highly of it; and since then many agricultural writers have devoted
attention to it. But though it has been cultivated for at least two
thousand years and is now extensively grown in Malta, Spain, southern
France, Russia, Germany and India, which mainly supply the market, it
seems not to have developed any improved varieties.

Description.--Its roots are white, spindle-shaped and rather fibrous;
its stems about 18 inches tall, branchy, erect, slender, cylindrical;
its root leaves lobed somewhat like those of celery; its stem leaves
more and more finely cut toward the upper part of the stem, near the top
of which they resemble fennel leaves in their finely divided segments;
its flowers yellowish white, small, rather large, in loose umbels
consisting of many umbellets; its fruits ("seeds") greenish-gray, small,
ovoid or oblong in outline, longitudinally furrowed and ridged on the
convex side, very aromatic, sweetish and pleasantly piquant.

Cultivation.--The seeds, which should be as fresh as possible, never
more than two years old, should be sown in permanent quarters as soon as
the weather becomes settled in early spring. They should be planted 1/2
inch deep, about 1/2 inch asunder, in drills 15 or 18 inches apart, and
the plants thinned when about 2 inches tall to stand 6 inches asunder.
An ounce of seed should plant about 150 feet of drill. The plants, which
do not transplant readily, thrive best in well-drained, light, rich,
rather dry, loamy soils well exposed to the sun. A light application of
well-rotted manure, careful preparation of the ground, clean and
frequent cultivation, are the only requisites in the management of this

In about four months from the sowing of the seed, and in about one month
from the appearance of the flowers, the plants may be pulled, or
preferably cut, for drying. (See page 25.) The climate and the soils in
the warmer parts of the northern states appear to be favorable to the
commercial cultivation of anise, which it seems should prove a
profitable crop under proper management.

Uses.--The leaves are frequently employed as a garnish, for flavoring
salads, and to a small extent as potherbs. Far more general, however, is
the use of the seeds, which enter as a flavoring into various
condiments, especially curry powders, many kinds of cake, pastry, and
confectionery and into some kinds of cheese and bread. Anise oil is
extensively employed for flavoring many beverages both alcoholic and
non-spirituous and for disguising the unpleasant flavors of various
drugs. The seeds are also ground and compounded with other fragrant
materials for making sachet powders, and the oil mixed with other fluids
for liquid perfumes. Various similar anise combinations are largely used
in perfuming soaps, pomatums and other toilet articles. The very
volatile, nearly colorless oil is usually obtained by distillation with
water, about 50 pounds of seed being required to produce one pound of
oil. At Erfurt, Germany, where much of the commercial oil is made, the

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