The Hop (Humulus lupulus) belongs to the Nettle tribe (Cannabineoe)

of plants, and grows wild in our English hedges and copses; but

then it bears only male flowers. When cultivated it produces

the female catkins, or strobiles which are so well known as

Hops, and are so largely used for brewing purposes.

The plant gets its first name Humulus from humus, the rich

moist ground in which it chooses to grow, an
its affix lupulus

from the Latin lupus a wolf, because (as Pliny explained), when

produced among osiers, it [263] strangles them by its light climbing

embraces as the wolf does a sheep.

The word Hop comes from the Anglo-saxon hoppan to climb.

The leaves and the flowers afford a fine brown dye, and paper has

been made from the bine, or stalk, which sprouts in May, and soon

grows luxuriantly; as said old Tusser (1557):--

Get into thy Hop-yard, for now it is time

To teach Robin Hop on his pole how to climb.

The Hop, says Cockayne, was known to the Saxons, and they called

it the Hymele, a name enquired-for in vain among Hop growers

in Worcestershire and Kent.

Hops were first brought to this country from Flanders, in 1524:--

Turkeys, Carp, Hops, Pickerel, and Beer,

Came into England all in one year.

So writes old Izaak Walton! Before Hops were used for improving

and preserving beer our Saxon ancestors drank a beverage made

from malt, but clarified in a measure with Ground Ivy which is

hence named Ale-hoof. This was a thick liquor about which it was


Nil spissius est dum bibitur; nil clarius dum mingitur,

Unde constat multas faeces in ventre relinqui.

The Picts made beer from heather, but the secret of its manufacture

was lost when they became exterminated, since it had never been

divulged to strangers. Kenneth offered to spare the life of a father,

whose son had been just slain, if he would reveal the method; but,

though pardoned, he refused persistently. The inhabitants of Tola,

Jura, and other outlying districts, now brew a potable beer by

mixing two-thirds of heath tops with one of malt. Highlanders think

it very lucky to [264] find the white heather, which is the badge of

the Captain of Clan Ronald.

At first Hops were unpopular, and were supposed to engender

melancholy. Therefore Henry the Eighth issued an injunction to

brewers not to use them. Hops, says John Evelyn in his

Pomona, 1670, transmuted our wholesome ale into beer, which

doubtless much altered our constitutions. This one ingredient, by

some suspected not unworthily, preserves the drink indeed, but

repays the pleasure with tormenting diseases, and a shorter life.

Hops, such as come into the market, are the chaffy capsules of the

seeds, and turn brown early in the autumn. They possess a heavy

fragrant aromatic odour, and a very bitter pungent taste. The yellow

glands at the base of the scales afford a volatile strong-smelling oil,

and an abundant yellow powder which possesses most of the virtues

of the plant. Our druggists prepare a tincture from the strobiles with

spirit of wine, and likewise a thickened extract.

Again, a decoction of the root is esteemed by some as of equal

benefit with Sarsaparilla.

The lassitude felt in hot weather at its first access, or in early

spring, may be well met by an infusion of the leaves, strobiles and

stalks as Hop tea, taken by the wineglassful two or three times in

the day, whilst sluggish derangements of the liver and spleen may be

benefited thereby.

Lupulin, the golden dust from the scales (but not the pollen of the

anthers, as some erroneously suppose), is given in powder, and acts

as a gentle sedative if taken at bedtime. This is specific against

sexual irritability and its attendant train of morbid symptoms, with

mental depression and vital exhaustion. It contains [265] lupulite,

a volatile oil, and a peculiar resin, which is somewhat acrid, and

penetrating of taste.

Each of the Simples got from the Hop will allay pain and conduce to

sleep; they increase the firmness of the pulse, and reduce its


Also if applied externally, Hops as a poultice, or when steeped in a

bag, in very hot water as a stupe, will relieve muscular rheumatism,

spasm, and bruises.

Hop tea, when made from the flowers only, is to be brewed by

pouring a pint of boiling water on an ounce of the Hops, and letting

it stand until cool. This is an excellent drink in delirium tremens,

and will give prompt ease to an irritable bladder. Sherry in which

some Hops have been steeped makes a capital stomachic cordial. A

pillow, Pulvinar Humuli, stuffed with newly dried Hops was

successfully prescribed by Dr. Willis for George the Third, when

sedative medicines had failed to give him sleep; and again for our

Prince of Wales at the time of his severe typhoid fever, 1871, in

conjunction then with a most grateful draught of ale which had been

heretofore withheld. The crackling of dry Hop flowers when put

into a pillow may be prevented by first sprinkling them with a little


Persons have fallen into a deep slumber after remaining for some

time in a storehouse full of hops; and in certain northern districts a

watery extract from the flowers is given instead of opium. It is

useful to know that for sound reasons a moderate supper of bread

and butter, with crisp fresh lettuces, and light home-brewed ale

which contains Hops, is admirably calculated to promote sleep,

except in a full-blooded plethoric person. Lupulin, the glandular

powder from the dried strobiles, will induce sleep without causing

constipation, or headache. The dose is from two to four grains at

bedtime [266] on a small piece of bread and butter, or mixed with a

spoonful of milk.

The year 1855 produced a larger crop of cultivated Hops than has

been known before or since. When Hop poles are shaken by the

wind there is a distant electrical murmur like thunder.

Hop tea in the leaf is now sold by grocers, made from a mixture of

the Kentish and Indian plants, so as to combine in its infusion, the

refreshment of the one herb with the sleep-inducing virtues of the

other. The hops are brought direct from the farmers, just as they are

picked. They are then laid for a few hours to wither, after which

they are put under a rolling apparatus, which ill half-an-hour makes

them look like tea leaves, both in shape and colour. They are finally

mixed with Indian and Ceylon teas.

The young tops of the Hop plant if gathered in the spring and

boiled, may be eaten as asparagus, and make a good pot-herb: they

were formerly brought to market tied up in small bundles for table


A popular notion has, in some places, associated the Hop and the

Nightingale together as frequenting the same districts.

Medicinally the Hop is tonic, stomachic, and diuretic, with

antiseptic effects; it prevents worms, and allays the disquietude of

nervous indigestion. The popular nostrum Hop Bitters is thus

made: Buchu leaves, two ounces; Hops, half-a-pound; boil in five

quarts of water, in an iron vessel, for an hour; when lukewarm add

essence of Winter-green (Pyrola), two ounces, and one pint of

alcohol. Take one tablespoonful three times in the day, before

eating. White Bryony root is likewise used in making the Bitters.