Among the leguminous plants which supply food for the invalid,

and are endowed with certain qualifications for correcting the

health, may be justly placed the Lentil, though we have to import it

because our moist, cold climate is not favourable for its growth.

Nevertheless, it closely resembles the small purple vetch of our

summer hedgerows at home. In France its pulse is much eaten

during Lent--which season takes its
ame, as some authors suppose,

from this penitential plant. Men become under its subduing dietary

influence, lenti et lenes. The plant is cultivated freely in Egypt

for the sake of the seeds, which are flat on both sides, growing in

numerous pods.

The botanical name is Ervum lens; and about the year 1840 a Mr.

Wharton sold the flour of Lentils under the name of Ervalenta, this

being then of a primrose colour. He failed in his enterprise, and Du

Barry took up the business, but substituting the red Arabian Lentil

for the yellow German pulse.

Joseph's mess of pottage which he sold to Esau for his birthright

was a preparation of the red Lentil: and the same food was the bread

of Ezekiel.

The legumin contained in this vegetable is very light and sustaining,

but it is apt to form unwholesome combinations with any earthy

salts taken in other articles of food, or in the water used in cooking;

therefore Lemon juice or vinegar is a desirable addition to Lentils at

table. This is because of the phosphates contained so abundantly,

and liable to become deposited in the urine. Lentils, says Gerard,

are singular good to stay the menses. They are traditionally

regarded as funeral plants, and formerly they were forbidden at

sacrifices and feasts.

[306] Parkinson said, The country people sow it in the fields as

food for their cattle, and call it 'tills', leaving out the 'lent', as

thinking that word agreeth not with the matter. Ita sus

Minervam. In Hampshire the plant is known as tils, and in

Oxfordshire as dills. The Romans supposed it made people

indolent and torpid, therefore they named the plant from lentus,


Allied to the Lentil as likewise a leguminous plant is the LUPINE,

grown now only as an ornament to our flower beds, but formerly

cultivated by the Romans as an article of food, and still capable of

usefulness in this capacity for the invalid. Pliny said, No kind of

fodder is more wholesome and light of digestion than the white

Lupine when eaten dry. If taken commonly at meals it will

contribute a fresh colour and a cheerful countenance. When thus

formerly used neither trouble nor expense was needed in sowing the

seed, since it had merely to be scattered over the ground without

ploughing or digging. But Virgil designated it tristis Lupinus, the

sad Lupine, probably because when the pulse of this plant was

eaten without being first cooked in any way so as to modify its bitter

taste, it had a tendency to contract the muscles of the face, and to

give a sorrowful appearance to the countenance. It was said the

Lupine was cursed by the Virgin Mary, because when she fled with

the child Christ from the assassins of Herod, plants of this species

by the noise they made attracted the attention of the soldiers.

The Lupine was originally named from lupus, a wolf, because of

its voracious nature. The seeds were used as pieces of money by

Roman actors in their plays and comedies, whence came the saying,

nummus lupinus, a spurious bit of money.